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How to Make Your Own Ceramic Rocks & Caves for Aquariums

By Kris Borinski | Updated September 26, 2017

Hemera Technologies/PhotoObjects.net/Getty Images

Items you will need

  • Barium-free clay

  • Clay shaper tools

  • Pottery toolkit

  • Kiln

  • Lead-free paint glaze

To create a natural-looking environment in an aquarium, use plants and decorations that closely resemble the natural habitat of the fish housed in the tank. Pet stores sell rocks and caves the fish use to hide in, lay eggs in and live in, but they are expensive. Making rocks and caves for aquariums can be accomplished with clays, allowing the aquarium owner to make any size and shape desired.

Wet the clay and wedge it to remove air pockets. Wedging is important, because if bubbles remain in the clay, it may explode when it is fired later. To wedge, lift the clay and slam back down onto a table or other flat surface for 10 minutes.

Make the rocks. For each one, pull off a piece of clay and shape it into an oblong, tall and sharp or rounded rock.

Make the caves. Unlike the rocks, the freestanding caves will be hollowed out. For each cave, take a piece of the clay and flatten it to a thickness of about ½-inch. Then mold into a shape with a flat bottom and a rounded top. Fish will use the cave to hide in, so it needs at least once entrance. Since the clay is still soft, use a pottery toolkit containing a wooden knife or trimming tools to make a hole in the clay for the entrance.

Etch and mark the outsides of the caves and rocks, using clay shaper tools available from pottery- or art-supply stores. Make creases and crevices to resemble real rock.

Allow the pieces to air dry overnight. The following day, the clay will still be soft enough to add more markings or entrances to finish the pieces, if needed.

Fire the clay in a kiln. Kilns are available for home purchase but are several hundred dollars. Inquire at local art-supply stores about places that provide access to kilns for a fee.

Use lead-free ceramic paint to paint the pieces. To make natural-looking rocks and caves, paint on mosses and shadows.

Photo Credits

  • Hemera Technologies/PhotoObjects.net/Getty Images


Kris Borinski began writing for newspapers and magazines in 1982 and has managed both print and online publications. She has won Army Keith L. Ware Journalism awards and Thomas Jefferson Journalism Awards. Borinski has written for "History Illustrated" magazine, "TV Host" and "Harrisburg Business Week." Borinski holds a Bachelor of Arts in journalism with a minor in history from Penn State University.